Murphy, Elizabeth. Interactive Multimedia Learning Environments.   Retrieved from http://web.archive.org/web/20041015205802/http://www.cdli.ca/~elmurphy/emurphy/ile.html 

Elizabeth Murphy reviews several issues pertaining to interactive multimedia learning environments.  The philosophy is far more complex than I anticipated.  Murphy refers to authors and researchers from Interactive Multimedia Learning Environments: Human Factors and Technical Considerations on Design Issues.  She cites Giardina to explain some characteristics of IMLE:

bullet*Dynamic: “nature of information and its processing change, depending on the situation, learning context, and individual needs
bullet*Includes elements of student modeling strategies, multimodal knowledge representation, intelligent advisory strategies, and diagnostic learning strategies.
bullet*Control and initiative form an important relationship between learner and environment

Murphy goes on to explain adaptability and intelligence as they pertain to concepts of control.  I was unaware that interactivity, as Murphy uses Clark and Craig’s definition, is the “ability to provide both corrective and informational feedback to the user.”  When I consider some of the software that I thought was interactive, not all of them did those two things. 

It was interesting to read Duchastel’s exploration of Hypermedia Intelligent Tutoring System (HMITS) to merge tutoring systems and hypermedia.  HMITS would “afford learner control while at the same time provide orientation and intelligent adaptability.”  I wonder if this exists yet? 

I enjoyed the interactive multimedia prototype examples Murphy provided from Wilson, the Palenque and the Museum Visitor’s Prototype, and also Barker’s example of a simple adaptive hypermedia interactive environment in the form of an electronic or hypermedia book.  Murphy uses these examples to confirm Giardina’s notions that the technical considerations and learner’s actions and decisions, and adjustments be “tailored to individual differences.”  Murphy agrees with Giardina that to understand the role that interactivity might have in learning, one has to “consider the cognitive dimension and the focus on the learning process.”  Murphy reminds the reader that first and foremost is the learner in the “design or definition of interactive learning environments.”   

In the rest of Murphy’s review, she discusses three main themes of interactivity: control, adaptability and intelligence, and proceeds to determine the central theme.  She examines both what present systems can do and some difficulties that presently exist in them.  From this discussion, I thought was important to identify the components of a highly interactive learning environment:

bullet-Intelligence
bullet-Adaptability
bullet-User control
bullet-Response to user’s interest and needs
bullet-Multimodal

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